OT Vulnerability Management Best Practices



OTORIO’s Solution


OTORIO’s Benefits

  • Ability to conduct a safe operational security posture assessment without disturbing ongoing operations.
  • Improved ROI on pre-existing security controls and solutions by leveraging existing technology investments.
  • A comprehensive security assessment report, providing senior management with a full picture of the company’s OT cyber security posture.
  • Quick risk mitigation and hardening of site-specific OT network risks and vulnerabilities.
  • The company went from only relying upon detection to adopting a continuous, proactive risk-based assessment, mitigation, and management strategy to secure its OT environment.

This article discusses common OT vulnerabilities and how to ensure cybersecurity for operational technology using a risk-based approach.

What is OT Vulnerability Management?

Operational technology (OT) vulnerability management is a critical component for ensuring the security and reliability of your industrial systems and processes. In today's interconnected and digitized industrial landscape—where Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) devices and industrial control systems (ICS) play a central role—vulnerabilities can expose your organization to significant risks, including production downtime, safety breaches, and potential financial losses.

OT vulnerability management is the process of systematically mitigating exploitable weaknesses within ICS. It encompasses a set of practices and strategies to identify, assess, prioritize, and mitigate potentially exposed network components. This article looks at some OT vulnerability management nuances. It highlights key differences between IT vulnerability management, common OT vulnerabilities, the four vulnerability management stages, essential best practices, and criteria to consider when selecting an OT vulnerability solution.

Differences Between IT and OT Vulnerability Management

While IT and OT share common cybersecurity goals, their operational characteristics and priorities require distinct approaches to vulnerability management. IT systems typically focus on data confidentiality, whereas OT systems prioritize safety, reliability, and process continuity.

IT vulnerabilities are often addressed through regular patching, but in this regard, OT systems require careful consideration due to potential disruption. Moreover, the convergence of IT and OT increases your attack surface, demanding a holistic strategy that bridges the gap between these domains.

Common OT Vulnerabilities

OT environments are increasingly susceptible to a range of vulnerabilities that can lead to operational disruptions, safety risks, and potential economic loss. They arise from a combination of factors unique to OT systems, including legacy components, lack of patching flexibility, convergence with IT systems, and the ever-evolving threat landscape. Understanding these common OT vulnerabilities is essential for your teams to develop effective strategies to mitigate risks and enhance the security posture of your industrial operations.

  • Outdated and unpatched software – One of the most prevalent vulnerabilities in OT environments is the presence of outdated and unpatched software. Many industrial systems and devices have extended lifecycles, often spanning decades, due to the high costs and complexities associated with upgrades.

    As a result, such systems could be running on outdated operating systems and applications that lack the latest security patches. Exploiting known vulnerabilities in unpatched software is a favored tactic of cybercriminals seeking to compromise OT systems.

  • Weak authentication and access controls – Inadequate authentication methods and lax access controls are significant vulnerabilities in OT networks. Weak or default passwords, shared credentials, and insufficient role-based access restrictions can leave critical systems and processes accessible to unauthorized access. This can enable attackers to gain control of your industrial machinery, manipulate processes, and disrupt operations.

  • Lack of network segmentation – Many OT environments lack proper network segmentation, meaning that once a bad actor gains access to one part of your network, they can potentially move laterally and reach other critical systems. The flat network architecture commonly found in OT systems can lead to a situation where a breach in one area can easily spread to other parts of your infrastructure, thereby amplifying the potential impact.

  • Insecure protocols – OT systems often rely on legacy communication protocols that weren’t ever designed with security in mind. Such insecure protocols lack encryption and authentication means, making them susceptible to eavesdropping, tampering, and replay attacks. Cybercriminals can exploit these vulnerabilities to intercept and manipulate communication between devices and systems, potentially causing havoc in your industrial processes.

  • Lack of proper security update procedures – OT systems often lack the robust and automated security update measures found in traditional IT environments. This is frequently due to strict operational requirements of continuous uptime and the potential for updates to disrupt critical processes. Thus, even when they’re available, applying patches can be challenging—thus leaving systems exposed to known vulnerabilities.

  • Human factors and insider threats – These threats pose significant risks. Employees and contractors with access to OT systems could inadvertently introduce vulnerabilities through misconfigurations or inadequate security practices. Moreover, malicious insiders can intentionally compromise systems, posing a severe threat to operational integrity and data security.

  • Lack of monitoring and visibility – Insufficient monitoring and complete visibility into OT systems can lead to delayed detection and response to potential threats. Without proper monitoring, enterprises might not be aware of unusual activities or unauthorized access until significant damage has already occurred.

  • Supply chain vulnerabilities – OT systems often rely on third-party vendors for components, software, and services. Such supply chain relationships can introduce vulnerabilities if vendors don’t adhere to strong security practices. Moreover, attackers might compromise vendors’ systems and use them as a pathway into your organization’s OT environment.

Recognizing and addressing these common vulnerabilities requires a tailored approach that balances security with the operational imperatives of your industrial processes. With respect to OT asset management, it’s important to prioritize regular vulnerability assessments, robust authentication methods, network segmentation, and effective monitoring to detect and mitigate potential threats.

The Four Stages of OT Vulnerability Management

OT asset management – A foundational step in OT vulnerability management is establishing a comprehensive inventory of all assets within your environment. This entails identifying every device and software present, as well as their specific configurations. Such an asset inventory serves as the basis for understanding your OT attack surface and its potential vulnerabilities.

Classifying vulnerabilities – Once you’ve identified all OT assets, vulnerabilities are categorized and assessed based on their severity and potential impact. This stage involves continuous monitoring for emerging vulnerabilities, whether from known sources such as common vulnerabilities and exposures (CVEs) or vulnerabilities unique to industrial systems.

Prioritization – Given the critical nature of OT systems, prioritization of vulnerabilities is essential. Here your teams should evaluate the potential impact of each vulnerability on operational integrity, safety, and availability. Those that could result in severe consequences should be prioritized for immediate attention.

Mitigating vulnerabilities and risks – The last step for your organization is to implement mitigation strategies to reduce vulnerabilities and associated risks. This might involve applying patches, modifying configurations, updating access controls, and enhancing network segmentation. Careful planning helps avoid operational disruptions while effectively addressing vulnerabilities.


Four Best Practices for OT Vulnerability Management 

Asset Discovery and Inventory

Establish and maintain an accurate inventory of all OT assets. Though you should employ both active and passive discovery methods to identify devices, systems, and applications, several challenges exist:

  • A diverse and dynamic OT environment can encompass a wide range of devices, from legacy machinery to modern sensors. Additionally, assets might be added, removed, or frequently moved due to operational needs.
  • Lack of standardization can present an issue; OT assets often use proprietary protocols and communication standards that make discovery more complex compared to a more standardized IT environment.

  • Segmentation and isolation can be problematic. Due to security concerns, certain segments of your OT network might be isolated, making their discovery more challenging.

  • Assets might be physically spread across vast geographical locations, making their tracking and identification difficult.

Risk Assessment and Classification 

To ensure the security and reliability of your industrial processes, these are vital stages in your OT vulnerability management process. However, due to the unique nature of OT systems, several challenges arise when attempting to conduct accurate risk assessments and classify vulnerabilities:

  • The complexity of OT networks can make it difficult to accurately assess the potential impact of vulnerabilities on the various components. Understanding the dependencies and interactions between your OT assets is essential in determining the true risk posed by a vulnerability.

  • Unlike traditional IT systems, OT componentry is directly tied to critical industrial processes. Assessing the risk of a vulnerability solely based on its technical severity might not embrace the full picture. Your teams must consider how exploitation of a given vulnerability could impact operational processes, safety, and production uptime.

  • Defining consistent and standardized metrics for evaluating the severity and potential impact of OT vulnerabilities is challenging due to component diversity. Metrics that work well in IT environments might not adequately capture risks associated with OT systems.

  • There is often a scarcity of publicly available data specific to OT system vulnerabilities. This can hinder the accurate assessment of potential exploitations and their impact. You might need to rely on proprietary or internal data, which could limit the comprehensiveness of risk assessments pertinent to OT asset management.

  • Context matters greatly in OT vulnerability management. Factors such as the criticality of the affected asset, its role in the overall process, the potential for physical harm, and possible financial consequences must all be considered. This requires collaboration between cybersecurity teams and operational experts.

  • OT environments are subject to dynamic operational changes—including updates, modifications, and reconfigurations. This can affect the assessment of vulnerabilities, as environment changes might introduce new risks or alter the potential impact of existing vulnerabilities.

  • Accurate vulnerability classification is complex when weighing the intricate interplay between technical severity and operational impact. Determining whether a vulnerability is critical, high, medium, or low in an OT context requires a thorough understanding of the specific systems and their role in your organization’s operational process.

  • OT systems often have patching constraints due to operational requirements and concerns over the disruption of critical processes. This limitation can influence the prioritization of vulnerabilities, as the feasibility of patching might vary depending on the function of any given asset.

  • OT environment resource allocations are often limited, so addressing vulnerabilities requires careful allocation of time, personnel, and budget. Prioritization is challenging when multiple vulnerabilities compete for attention.


Change Management and Testing 

Herein, change management refers to the structured process of planning, implementing, monitoring, and controlling changes to OT systems, software, configurations, and processes. Difficulties include:

  • Operational constraints – OT environments often have strict operational requirements that limit the window for changes. Balancing security with these constraints is challenging.

  • Complex interdependencies – A seemingly minor change in one area might have cascading effects on other systems.

  • Legacy systems – These might lack the flexibility for frequent changes or updates, posing complications in implementing patches and security updates.

  • Cultural differences – OT and IT teams might have differing perspectives regarding change management. Bridging them is essential for effective collaboration.

  • Resistance to change – Operational staff might be resistant to changes due to concerns about disruptions or unfamiliarity with new technologies.

Effective change management and testing ensure that any modifications are carried out in a controlled and secure manner, minimizing the risk of disruptions and vulnerabilities. Here, your teams should introduce changes, updates, and patches through a well-defined change management process. Thoroughly test changes in a controlled environment before deploying them in your live OT network.


Continuous Monitoring and Response 

Implementing continuous monitoring tools to detect anomalies and unauthorized activities is essential. It’s recommended that you develop an incident response plan specifically tailored to your environment to swiftly address vulnerabilities. However, due to unique OT system characteristics, specific challenges need to be addressed to effectively implement continuous monitoring and respond to threats in a timely manner:

  • OT environment complexity – The array of OT component complexity can make it challenging to establish a comprehensive and unified monitoring solution that covers all aspects.

  • Lack of standardization – OT systems often use proprietary protocols and communication standards. Unlike the standardized IT world, the lack of same in OT can hinder the development of monitoring tools that effectively cover your entire landscape.

  • Real-time operational constraints – Given the strict performance and operational requirements of your network, difficulty can ensue in implementing monitoring solutions that provide complete visibility without impacting the real-time nature of OT systems.

  • Legacy systems and compatibility – Integrating older systems into a continuous monitoring framework can often pose a problem in that they might not have the requisite interfaces or capabilities for modern solutions.

  • Network segmentation – While isolation enhances security, it also makes continuous monitoring more complex; your network architecture might limit monitoring tool visibility.

  • False positives and negatives – Monitoring systems alert based on predefined thresholds and patterns. Distinguishing between normal operational behavior and potential threats can be tough, leading to both false positives (unnecessary alerts) and false negatives (missed threats).

  • Real-time threat detection – The dynamic nature of industrial processes makes detecting threats in real-time a challenge. Cyber threats that impact your processes can have immediate and far-reaching consequences, requiring rapid detection and response.

  • IT <> OT interconnectedness – Such system convergence increases your attack surface and complicates monitoring efforts. A threat originating from the IT network could potentially impact your OT environment, necessitating coordinated monitoring and response.

  • Skill shortages – Skilled personnel with expertise in both OT systems and cybersecurity are in short supply. Monitoring and responding to threats in OT environments require specialized knowledge that might not be readily available.

  • Resource constraints – Implementing and maintaining a comprehensive continuous monitoring system can be resource-intensive in terms of both personnel and technology. Limited budgets and staffing can hinder effective implementation.

What to Look for in an OT Vulnerability Solution

Several key features and capabilities should be considered when selecting an OT vulnerability management solution:

Asset discovery and visibility – The solution should provide comprehensive asset discovery, inventory, and real-time visibility into OT devices and systems.

Integration with OT environment – Ensure the solution integrates seamlessly with various OT devices and systems without disrupting operations.

Vulnerability assessment and classification – The OT security solution should offer robust vulnerability assessment, classification, and risk assessment capabilities.

Prioritization and remediation – Look for a solution that aids in prioritizing vulnerabilities based on their potential impact and suggests effective remediation strategies.

Change management and testing – The solution should facilitate controlled change management processes and allow for thorough testing before implementation.

Continuous monitoring and alerts – Continuous monitoring features, anomaly detection, and alerting mechanisms are crucial for timely threat detection.

Reporting and compliance – The solution should generate comprehensive reports for audits, compliance assessments, and executive communication.

In conclusion, OT vulnerability management is a multifaceted endeavor that requires a deep understanding of industrial processes, cybersecurity risks, and effective mitigation strategies. By recognizing the distinct challenges and priorities of OT environments, your organization can implement a comprehensive vulnerability management approach that safeguards critical operations and ensures the resilience of industrial systems in the face of evolving cyber threats.

OTORIO’s risk-based, full protection approach provides the following OT security best practices:

  • Ensures complete visibility of your entire facility
  • Performs OT risk assessments across the board
  • Secures operational data through 24/7 risk monitoring
  • Provides business risk alignment and prioritization
  • Improves your industrial security posture through risk mitigation


OTORIO’s unique, proactive technology assesses OT cybersecurity threats by analyzing and visualizing four key components—threat, likelihood, vulnerability, and impact—and provides risk mitigation actions that are prioritized according to actual exposure and potential impact on your operations. The OTORIO platform enables you to achieve an integrated, holistic security strategy for industrial control systems (ICS) and cyber-physical systems (CPS).

In an era of increasing connectivity and digitization, robust OT security is no longer an option but a necessity to ensure the safety, efficiency, and sustainability of your industrial processes.

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